Working out without being properly fueled is like driving on empty. Making sure you are properly fueled before AND after your workout allows you to reap the benefits of your hard work at the gym, regardless of wether your goals include weight gain, maintenance, or loss. Staying hydrated before, during and after your workout is key, but it’s not enough. You need to supply your body with energy to rock your workout and give it the nutrients it needs to recover repair your muscles.
Pre - Workout: Eating or drinking to provide energy and endurance for your workout helps to provide nutrients to your muscles and minimize muscle damage. It also limits immume system supression and sets the stage for faster recovery later. Don't exercise hungry, you are likely to run out of steam and crash!
Post-Workout: Eating some easily digested carbs and protein within 30-45 minutes or as soon as possible after your workout to shirft your body from a breaking down mode to rebuilding mode. This speeds speed up the elimination of metabolic wastes, initiates tissue repair and bolsters the immune system.
Growth Phase: Continue to give your body targeted nutrition in the meals 4-16 hours after your workout to maintain your muscle-building state. Eat balanced meals that include an adequate amount of protein and fat to satisfy your appetite and not leave you hungry an hour later.
Check out the infographic for pre and post workout snack/recipe ideas.
Source - Nutrient Timing: The Future of Sports Nutirion by John Ivy and Robery Portman